Atomic Habits


Author: James Clear

Recommended by: Shu Omi

Date read: 13-09-2021

My score: 5 out of 5

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Far and away the best book I read in 2020. It’s an incredibly actionable guide to creating and maintaining good habits, as well as overcoming bad habits

Highlights and notes

    • The 1st Law: Make It Obvious
      • 1.1: Fill out the Habits Scorecard. Write down your current habits to become aware of them.
      • 1.2: Use implementation intentions: “I will [BEHAVIOR] at [TIME] in [LOCATION].”
      • 1.3: Use habit stacking: “After [CURRENT HABIT], I will [NEW HABIT].”
      • 1.4: Design your environment. Make the cues of good habits obvious and visible.
    • The 2nd Law: Make It Attractive
      • 2.1: Use temptation bundling. Pair an action you want to do with an action you need to do.
      • 2.2: Join a culture where your desired behavior is the normal behavior.
      • 2.3: Create a motivation ritual. Do something you enjoy immediately before a difficult habit.
    • The 3rd Law: Make It Easy
      • 3.1: Reduce friction. Decrease the number of steps between you and your good habits.
      • 3.2: Prime the environment. Prepare your environment to make future actions easier.
      • 3.3: Master the decisive moment. Optimize the small choices that deliver outsized impact.
      • 3.4: Use the Two-Minute Rule. Downscale your habits until they can be done in two minutes or less.
      • 3.5: Automate your habits. Invest in technology and onetime purchases that lock in future behavior.
    • The 4th Law: Make It Satisfying
      • 4.1: Use reinforcement. Give yourself an immediate reward when you complete your habit.
      • 4.2: Make “doing nothing” enjoyable. When avoiding a bad habit, design a way to see the benefits.
      • 4.3: Use a habit tracker. Keep track of your habit streak and “don’t break the chain.”
      • 4.4: Never miss twice. When you forget to do a habit, make sure you get back on track immediately.
    • Inversion of the 1st Law: Make It Invisible
      • 1.5: Reduce exposure. Remove the cues of your bad habits from your environment.
    • Inversion of the 2nd Law: Make It Unattractive
      • 2.4: Reframe your mind-set. Highlight the benefits of avoiding your bad habits.
    • Inversion of the 3rd Law: Make It Difficult
      • 3.6: Increase friction. Increase the number of steps between you and your bad habits.
      • 3.7: Use a commitment device. Restrict your future choices to the ones that benefit you.
    • Inversion of the 4th Law: Make It Unsatisfying
      • 4.5: Get an accountability partner. Ask someone to watch your behavior.
      • 4.6: Create a habit contract. Make the costs of your bad habits public and painful.

1: The Surprising Power of Atomic Habits

Habits are the compound interest of self-improvement. Getting 1 percent better every day counts for a lot in the long-run.

Habits are a double-edged sword. They can work for you or against you, which is why understanding the details is essential.

Small changes often appear to make no difference until you cross a critical threshold. The most powerful outcomes of any compounding process are delayed. You need to be patient.

An atomic habit is a little habit that is part of a larger system. Just as atoms are the building blocks of molecules, atomic habits are the building blocks of remarkable results.

If you want better results, then forget about setting goals. Focus on your system instead.

You do not rise to the level of your goals. You fall to the level of your systems.

2: How Your Habits Shape Your Identity (and Vice Versa)

There are three levels of change: outcome change, process change, and identity change.

The most effective way to change your habits is to focus not on what you want to achieve, but on who you wish to become.

Your identity emerges out of your habits. Every action is a vote for the type of person you wish to become.

Becoming the best version of yourself requires you to continuously edit your beliefs, and to upgrade and expand your identity.

The real reason habits matter is not because they can get you better results (although they can do that), but because they can change your beliefs about yourself.

3: How to Build Better Habits in 4 Simple Steps

A habit is a behavior that has been repeated enough times to become automatic.

The ultimate purpose of habits is to solve the problems of life with as little energy and effort as possible.

Any habit can be broken down into a feedback loop that involves four steps: cue, craving, response, and reward.

The Four Laws of Behavior Change are a simple set of rules we can use to build better habits. They are (1) make it obvious, (2) make it attractive, (3) make it easy, and (4) make it satisfying

4: The Man Who Didn’t Look Right

With enough practice, your brain will pick up on the cues that predict certain outcomes without consciously thinking about it.

Once our habits become automatic, we stop paying attention to what we are doing.

The process of behavior change always starts with awareness. You need to be aware of your habits before you can change them.

Pointing-and-Calling raises your level of awareness from a nonconscious habit to a more conscious level by verbalizing your actions.

The Habits Scorecard is a simple exercise you can use to become more aware of your behavior.

5: The Best Way to Start a New Habit

The 1st Law of Behavior Change is make it obvious.

The two most common cues are time and location.

Creating an implementation intention is a strategy you can use to pair a new habit with a specific time and location.

The implementation intention formula is: I will [BEHAVIOR] at [TIME] in [LOCATION].

Habit stacking is a strategy you can use to pair a new habit with a current habit.

The habit stacking formula is: After [CURRENT HABIT], I will [NEW HABIT].

6: Motivation Is Overrated; Environment Often Matters More

Small changes in context can lead to large changes in behavior over time.

Every habit is initiated by a cue. We are more likely to notice cues that stand out.

Make the cues of good habits obvious in your environment.

Gradually, your habits become associated not with a single trigger but with the entire context surrounding the behavior. The context becomes the cue.

It is easier to build new habits in a new environment because you are not fighting against old cues.

7: The Secret to Self-Control

The inversion of the 1st Law of Behavior Change is make it invisible.

Once a habit is formed, it is unlikely to be forgotten.

People with high self-control tend to spend less time in tempting situations.

It’s easier to avoid temptation than resist it.

One of the most practical ways to eliminate a bad habit is to reduce exposure to the cue that causes it.

Self-control is a short-term strategy, not a long-term one.

8: How to Make a Habit Irresistible

Temptation bundling works by linking an action you want to do with an action you need to do

The habit stacking + temptation bundling formula is:
After [HABIT I NEED], I will [HABIT I WANT].

Temptation bundling is one way to create a heightened version of any habit by connecting it with something you already want

9: The Role of Family and Friends in Shaping Your Habits

The culture we live in determines which behaviors are attractive to us.

We tend to adopt habits that are praised and approved of by our culture because we have a strong desire to fit in and belong to the tribe.

We tend to imitate the habits of three social groups: the close (family and friends), the many (the tribe), and the powerful (those with status and prestige).

One of the most effective things you can do to build better habits is to join a culture where (1) your desired behavior is the normal behavior and (2) you already have something in common with the group.

The normal behavior of the tribe often overpowers the desired behavior of the individual. Most days, we’d rather be wrong with the crowd than be right by ourselves.

If a behavior can get us approval, respect, and praise, we find it attractive.

10: How to Find and Fix the Causes of Your Bad Habits

The inversion of the 2nd Law of Behavior Change is make it unattractive.

Every behavior has a surface level craving and a deeper underlying motive.

Your habits are modern-day solutions to ancient desires.

The cause of your habits is actually the prediction that precedes them. The prediction leads to a feeling.

Highlight the benefits of avoiding a bad habit to make it seem unattractive.

Habits are attractive when we associate them with positive feelings and unattractive when we associate them with negative feelings. Create a motivation ritual by doing something you enjoy immediately before a difficult habit.

11: Walk Slowly, but Never Backward

The 3rd Law of Behavior Change is make it easy.

The most effective form of learning is practice, not planning.

Focus on taking action, not being in motion.

Habit formation is the process by which a behavior becomes progressively more automatic through repetition.

The amount of time you have been performing a habit is not as important as the number of times you have performed it.

12: The Law of Least Effort

Human behavior follows the Law of Least Effort. We will naturally gravitate toward the option that requires the least amount of work.

Create an environment where doing the right thing is as easy as possible.

Reduce the friction associated with good behaviors. When friction is low, habits are easy.

Increase the friction associated with bad behaviors. When friction is high, habits are difficult.

Prime your environment to make future actions easier

13: How to Stop Procrastinating by Using the Two-Minute Rule

Habits can be completed in a few seconds but continue to impact your behavior for minutes or hours afterward.

Many habits occur at decisive moments—choices that are like a fork in the road—and either send you in the direction of a productive day or an unproductive one.

The Two-Minute Rule states, “When you start a new habit, it should take less than two minutes to do.”

The more you ritualize the beginning of a process, the more likely it becomes that you can slip into the state of deep focus that is required to do great things.

Standardize before you optimize. You can’t improve a habit that doesn’t exist.

14: How to Make Good Habits Inevitable and Bad Habits Impossible

The inversion of the 3rd Law of Behavior Change is make it difficult.

A commitment device is a choice you make in the present that locks in better behavior in the future.

The ultimate way to lock in future behavior is to automate your habits.

Onetime choices—like buying a better mattress or enrolling in an automatic savings plan—are single actions that automate your future habits and deliver increasing returns over time.

Using technology to automate your habits is the most reliable and effective way to guarantee the right behavior.

15: The Cardinal Rule of Behavior Change

The 4th Law of Behavior Change is make it satisfying.

We are more likely to repeat a behavior when the experience is satisfying.

The human brain evolved to prioritize immediate rewards over delayed rewards.

The Cardinal Rule of Behavior Change: What is immediately rewarded is repeated. What is immediately punished is avoided.

To get a habit to stick you need to feel immediately successful—even if it’s in a small way.

The first three laws of behavior change—make it obvious, make it attractive, and make it easy—increase the odds that a behavior will be performed this time. The fourth law of behavior change—make it satisfying—increases the odds that a behavior will be repeated next time.

16: How to Stick with Good Habits Every Day

One of the most satisfying feelings is the feeling of making progress.

A habit tracker is a simple way to measure whether you did a habit—like marking an X on a calendar.

Habit trackers and other visual forms of measurement can make your habits satisfying by providing clear evidence of your progress.

Don’t break the chain. Try to keep your habit streak alive.

Never miss twice. If you miss one day, try to get back on track as quickly as possible.

Just because you can measure something doesn’t mean it’s the most important thing.

17: How an Accountability Partner Can Change Everything

The inversion of the 4th Law of Behavior Change is make it unsatisfying.

We are less likely to repeat a bad habit if it is painful or unsatisfying.

An accountability partner can create an immediate cost to inaction. We care deeply about what others think of us, and we do not want others to have a lesser opinion of us.

A habit contract can be used to add a social cost to any behavior. It makes the costs of violating your promises public and painful.

Knowing that someone else is watching you can be a powerful motivator.

18: The Truth About Talent (When Genes Matter and When They Don’t)

The secret to maximizing your odds of success is to choose the right field of competition.

Pick the right habit and progress is easy. Pick the wrong habit and life is a struggle.

Genes cannot be easily changed, which means they provide a powerful advantage in favorable circumstances and a serious disadvantage in unfavorable circumstances.

Habits are easier when they align with your natural abilities. Choose the habits that best suit you.

Play a game that favors your strengths. If you can’t find a game that favors you, create one.

Genes do not eliminate the need for hard work. They clarify it. They tell us what to work hard on.

19: The Goldilocks Rule: How to Stay Motivated in Life and Work

The Goldilocks Rule states that humans experience peak motivation when working on tasks that are right on the edge of their current abilities.

The greatest threat to success is not failure but boredom. As habits become routine, they become less interesting and less satisfying. We get bored.

Anyone can work hard when they feel motivated. It’s the ability to keep going when work isn’t exciting that makes the difference.

Professionals stick to the schedule; amateurs let life get in the way.

20: The Downside of Creating Good Habits

The upside of habits is that we can do things without thinking. The downside is that we stop paying attention to little errors.

Habits + Deliberate Practice = Mastery

Reflection and review is a process that allows you to remain conscious of your performance over time.

The tighter we cling to an identity, the harder it becomes to grow beyond it.

Conclusion: The Secret to Results That Last

The secret to getting results that last is to never stop making improvements. It’s remarkable what you can build if you just don’t stop. It’s remarkable the business you can build if you don’t stop working. It’s remarkable the body you can build if you don’t stop training. It’s remarkable the knowledge you can build if you don’t stop learning. It’s remarkable the fortune you can build if you don’t stop saving. It’s remarkable the friendships you can build if you don’t stop caring. Small habits don’t add up. They compound. That’s the power of atomic habits. Tiny changes. Remarkable results.

Little Lessons from the Four Laws

  • Awareness comes before desire.
  • Happiness is simply the absence of desire
  • It is the idea of pleasure that we chase
  • Peace occurs when you don’t turn your observations into problems
  • With a big enough why you can overcome any how
  • Being curious is better than being smart.
  • Emotions drive behavior
  • We can only be rational and logical after we have been emotional.
    • System 1 and 2, fast/slow, see Kahnemann
  • Your response tends to follow your emotions
  • Suffering drives progress
  • Your actions reveal how badly you want something
  • Saying =/= doing
  • Reward is on the other side of sacrifice
  • Self-control is difficult because it is not satisfying
  • Our expectations determine our satisfaction
    • Satisfaction = Liking – Wanting
    • This is the wisdom behind [[Seneca]]’s famous quote, “Being poor is not having too little, it is wanting more.
  • The pain of failure correlates to the height of expectation
  • Feelings come both before and after the behavior
    • Cue > Craving (Feeling) > Response > Reward (Feeling)
  • Desire initiates. Pleasure sustains
  • Hope declines with experience and is replaced by acceptance